Java Connector Server is a component that handles Java Connectors bundles. When a Java Connector Bundle is not directly executed into Provisioning System (Apache Syncope), you need to use a remote Java Connector Server.
Apache Syncope can manage users, groups and memberships (memberOf/members attribute) on external Active Directory via ConnId's Active Directory (JNDI) connector. Think you manage users and roles on Apache Syncope as centralized IdM, and have all these entities automatically kept in sync with your Active Directory users and groups: few simple steps onto the Apache Syncope administration console will help you to succesfully aim your goals ....
Microsoft Exchange Server is a mail server, calendaring software and contact manager. It runs on Windows Server and it is one of the main elements present into a Microsoft infrastructure. It often happens that one of the first requirements of an identity manager project is to integrate Microsoft Exchange in order to manage, into the global/centralized user workflow, mailboxes and mail contacts as well.
Windows PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. Its cmdlets let you manage computers and all server-side Microsoft applications (e.g. Exchange, SharePoint, FileServer, Active Directory, ...).