Shared Folders are used to manage shared resources over a network. Users may specify folders to share with other computers on a network. All computers on the network, depending on settings, may view and possibly modify the shared folder's content.
Microsoft Exchange Server is a mail server, calendaring software and contact manager. It runs on Windows Server and it is one of the main elements present into a Microsoft infrastructure. It often happens that one of the first requirements of an identity manager project is to integrate Microsoft Exchange in order to manage, into the global/centralized user workflow, mailboxes and mail contacts as well.
Windows PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language designed especially for system administration. Its cmdlets let you manage computers and all server-side Microsoft applications (e.g. Exchange, SharePoint, FileServer, Active Directory, ...).
Federations in MS SQL Azure are a way to achieve greater scalability and performance from the database tier of your application through horizontal partitioning. One or more tables within a database are split by row and portioned across multiple databases (Federation members).